Propagation is one of the most common practices of horticultural plants. It focuses to preserve the essential characteristics of the plants. It helps in increasing the number of plants. Propagation can be done through seeds(sexual) and vegetative(asexual).


Sexual propagation means growing plants by means of seeds .It is formed by union of male and female gametes within the ovule of a flower. Plants produced thereafter are called seedlings. Papaya, phalsa are till date propagated by seeds.


  • Seedlings are cheaper and easy to raise
  • No technical knowledge is required
  • It produces seedlings of high quality
  • Seedlings are generally long living


  • Seed propagation cannot be applied in all type of plants
  • Growth of seedlings is not uniform in nature


Propagation of plants through any type of vegetative part is called vegetative or asexual
propagation.It focuses on the reproduction of progeny plants identical in genotypes to single
source plant.


  • Composite trees can be grown
  • Harvesting and marketing is easy as asexual fruit plants are uniform
  • Mistakes done in planting inferior varieties can be corrected
  • There is a possibility to regulate tree size etc.


  • Its is expensive than raising plants through seeds
  • Plants are short lived


Propagation can be achieved by different methods in which the plants are induced to regenerate missing parts especially roots or shoots.
When the reproduced part is still attached to the plant, this process is known as layerage or layering . Layering is a natural process. Layering is a simple and effective process but it is not normally adapted to practices in large scale nurseries. For example, dropping black raspberry stems tend to root in contact with the soil.


When the regenerating portion is detached from the plants, this process is known as cutage or cutting. Cutting is one the most important methods of propagation. Cuttings are classified as root, stem or leaf. Stem cuttings are the most common.


Grafting means joining the plant parts together by means of tissue regeneration. The part of the attachment that provides the root is called the stock and the added piece is called the scion. If there are more than two parts involved ,then the middle piece is called the interstock. Grafting is a widely used vegetative propagation method.


The isolation and production of superiors is known as cultivators are the most effective systems for horticulture. Plant breeding is the systematic improvement of plants through genetic principles application . The cultivar in self pollinated crops is particularly homozygous genotype .In cross pollinated type, the cultivar is not typified by any plant.


Budding propagated plants provide true types of plants. The key is that it doesn’t require patience and very much skills. Propagation by budding is practiced in spring through summer. Propagation by budding is a common type of plant propagation where the bud is grafted on the stem of the rootstock plant. This technique is generally performed by orchard owners to grow fruit trees that takes less time to fruit.

There are two types of budding technique:
1. T shield Budding-T shield budding propagation is done by making a T shaped slit in the bark of the plant.
2. Chip Budding Propagation-Chip budding propagation is done by cutting a triangular chip in the bark of the plant

Author – Sakshi Luhariwala