DEFINITION

Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition. It is widely used to produce clones of a plant in a method known as micro propagation. Small pieces of tissue (named explants) can be used to produce hundreds and thousands of plants in a continuous process.

HISTORY

  • 1902-Idea of totipotency of plants cell was given by Haberlandt

  • 1937-White first established successful root culture of tomato

  • 1941-Vanoverbeek used coconut milk for growth and development of young embryos

  • 1962-Murashige and Skoog introduced the medium for tobacco culture


FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

1. Titipotency-The ability of plants cell to regenerate into a whole plant.

2. Plasticity-The ability of plants to alter their metabolism, growth and development to suit their environment.

MAJOR TYPES OF MEDIA USED


1. White’s medium:- is one of the earliest plant tissue culture media

2. MS medium:- formulated by Murashige and Skoog (MS) is most widely used for many types of culture systems

3. B5 medium:- developed by Gamborg for cell suspension and callus cultures

4. N6 medium:- formulated by Chu and used for cereal anther culture

5. Nitsch’s medium:- developed by Nitsch and Nitsch and used for anther culture


TYPES OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE


Selection of plant


Isolation of explant


Sterilization of explant


Inoculation of explant


Incubation


Initiation of callus


Sub culturing


Regeneration


Hardening


Transfer of plantlet to Green House or open field



TYPES OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

    1) Seed culture

    2) Meristem culture

    3) Protoplast culture

    4) Organ culture

    5) Pollen culture

    6) Callus culture

    7) Cell culture

    8) Embryo culture

APPLICATION OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

  • Tissue culture is used to conserve the rare species in the forest

  • Large scale growth of plant cells in liquid culture as a source of secondary product

  • Production of disease free plants

  • Creation of additional genetic variation

  • To cross distantly related species by protoplast fusion

  • Selection of plants resistant to toxins, viruses, etc.