Reproduction:

Reproduction  is the production of new offspring in plants, which can be accomplished by sexual or asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction  produces offspring by the fusion of gametes, resulting in offspring genetically different from the parent or parents. Asexual reproduction produces new individuals without the fusion of gametes, genetically identical to the parent plants and each other, except when mutations occur.

Types:

1. Asexual reproduction
2. Sexual reproduction

1.Asexual reproduction:

Asexual reproduction is a process in which new organism is produced from a single parent without the involvement of gametes or sex cells. Many unicellular and multicellular organisms reproduce asexually. In this process, parent organism either splits or a part of parent organism separates to form a new organism.  In this reproduction, certain cells of the parent undergo mitotic cell division so that two or more new organisms are formed.
Plants have two main types of asexual reproduction: vegetative reproduction and apomixis. Vegetative reproduction results in new plant individuals without the production of seeds or spores. Many different types of roots exhibit vegetative reproduction. The corm is used by gladiolus and garlic.

There are six types of asexual reproduction.
1.fission
2. budding
3. spore formation
4.regeneration
5.fragmentation
6.vegetative regeneration

Fission:

In fission, unicellular organism splits to form new organisms. It is a process of reproduction in organisms such as protozoa and many bacteria. There are two types of fission.

Binary fission:

In binary fission, the parent cell divides into two after reaching a point where it has fully grown. In this process, after splitting parent cell do not exist and two new organisms are formed. e.g amoeba, paramecium, Leishmania etc.

Multiple fission:

In Multiple fission, the parent cell splits to form many new organisms. This happens when cyst is formed around a unicellular organism. Inside this cyst the nucleus of an organism breaks in many smaller nuclei. When the favourable conditions come, the cyst breaks and the many daughter cells inside it are released.e.g. Plasmodium

Budding:

The word bud means small outgrowth. In the process of budding, a small bud grows on the body of parent organism and when the time comes it detaches itself to form a new organism. e.g Hydra and yeast

Spore formation:

Spore formation occurs in both unicellular and multi-cellular organisms. This process takes place in plants. In spore formation, the parent plant produces hundreds of reproductive units called spores in its spore case. When this spore case of the plant bursts, these spores travel in air and land on food or soil. Here they germinate and produce new plants. e.g Fungi like Rhizopus, Mucor, etc.

Regeneration:

In this process, if the body of a parent organism gets cut, then each cut part can regenerate and form a whole new organism from its body parts. Thishappens because when the body of an organism that can undergo regeneration gets cut then the cells of cut body part divide rapidly and form a ball of cells. These cells then move to their proper places to form organs and body parts. It occurs both in plant and animals .e.g Hydra and planaria. happens because when the body of an organism that can undergo regeneration gets cut then the cells of cut body part divide rapidly and form a ball of cells. These cells then move to their proper places to form organs and body parts. It occurs both in plant and animals .e.g Hydra and planaria.

Fragmentation:

Fragmentation occurs in multi cellular organisms. In this process the multi cellular organism breaks into two or more pieces on maturation. Each piece than grows into a new organism. e.g Spirogyra which is a plant and sea animal undergoes the process of fragmentation.

Vegetative Propagation:

This form of asexual reproduction occurs in plants only. In vegetative propagation, parts of old plant like stems, roots and leaves are used to grow a new plant. The buds which are present in dormant state in old plant are provided with suitable conditions like moisture and warmth so that they grow and develop to form a new plant. e.g. green grass, Bryophyllum, money plant, potato plant, onion, banana, etc.

2.Sexual reproduction:

Sexual reproduction  is a mode of reproduction involving the fusion of haploid female gamete (egg cell) and haploid male gamete (sperm cell). The fusion of these gametes occurs at fertilization resulting in the formation of a diploid zygote. The zygote develops into an individual organism that is genetically distinct from the parent organisms.
In flowering plants, male and female reproductive structures can be found in the same individual plant. The organ of sexual reproduction is the flower. Male gametes are found in pollen grains and produced in the anthers of the flower. Female gametes are found in ovules and produced in the ovary of the flower. A flower may consist of either stamen or pistil or both. Based on this, a flower can be either uni sexual or bisexual. A bisexual flower is composed of all the four parts mentioned above, e.g. Rose, China rose. Whereas, plants like papaya and cucumber produce only uni sexual flowers.

Types of sexual reproduction:

Two major types of sexual reproduction are syngamy and conjugation.

Fragmentation:

Fragmentation occurs in multi cellular organisms. In this process the multi cellular organism breaks into two or more pieces on maturation. Each piece than grows into a new organism. e.g Spirogyra which is a plant and sea animal undergoes the process of fragmentation.

Vegetative Propagation:

This form of asexual reproduction occurs in plants only. In vegetative propagation, parts of old plant like stems, roots and leaves are used to grow a new plant. The buds which are present in dormant state in old plant are provided with suitable conditions like moisture and warmth so that they grow and develop to form a new plant. e.g. green grass, Bryophyllum, money plant, potato plant, onion, banana, etc.

Sexual reproduction:

Sexual reproduction  is a mode of reproduction involving the fusion of haploid female gamete (egg cell) and haploid male gamete (sperm cell). The fusion of these gametes occurs at fertilization resulting in the formation of a diploid zygote. The zygote develops into an individual organism that is genetically distinct from the parent organisms. In flowering plants, male and female reproductive structures can be found in the same individual plant. The organ of sexual reproduction is the flower. Male gametes are found in pollen grains and produced in the anthers of the flower. Female gametes are found in ovules and produced in the ovary of the flower.
A flower may consist of either stamen or pistil or both. Based on this, a flower can be either uni sexual or bisexual. A bisexual flower is composed of all the four parts mentioned above, e.g. Rose, China rose. Whereas, plants like papaya and cucumber produce only uni sexual flowers.

Types of sexual reproduction:

Two major types of sexual reproduction are syngamy and conjugation.