Micropropagation refers to the in vitro multiplication and / or
regeneration of plant material under aseptic and controlled
environmental conditions to produce thousands or millions of plants
for transfer to the field .
This system can be modified to produce more banana suckers or shoots by manipulation banana corms to allow more buds to sprout .One such methods that is described here is called micropropagation . A higher tech procedure many plants in just a few generations of propagation is called tissue culture .
The micropropagation approach was first started by G. Moral in 1960 for the propagation of orchids in the commercial scale.
Stages of involved in plant micropropagation :
Stages 0: Selections of mother plant and its maintenance.
Stages 1: Initiation and establishment of culture
Stages 2 : Multiplication of shoots or rapid somatic embryo formations
Stages 3: In vitro germination of somatic embryos and /or rooting of shoots.
Stages 4: Transfer of plantlets to sterilized soil for hardening under greenhouse environment.
Methods of plant micropropagation :
In this methods of micropropagation, subtending leaf primordial and a meristem is placed into their respective growing media culture and allowed to grow .
After some weeks , an elongated rooted plantlet is produced Once after they reach a considerable height , these plantlets are transferred inn to the soil . In this methods , a disease – free plant can be produced and can be successfully used for multiplication of various herbaceous plant .
Callus culture :
In this methods , selected plant tissue is placed in an artificial growing medium culture until the callus is formed. After the production of callus, they are transferred into a culture medium containing plant growth regulators for the induction of adventitious organs . After a few weeks , a new plantlet is exposed gradually to the environmental condition .
Suspension culture :
In the methods of micropropagation cells or groups of cells are dispersed and allowed to grow in an aerated and sterile liquid culture medium .
Embryo culture :
In the methods of embryo culture , the embryo is extracted and placed in to a culture medium with proper nutrient in aseptic condition .
Protoplast culture :
In the methods , plant cell is isolated and cultured In an appropriate medium to reform the cell wall and callus .Latter , under suitable conditions , the cell develops a cell wall followed by an increase in cell division and cellular differentiation and grows into a new plant.
Advantages of plant micropropagation :
1. It can be used to produce disease of plants .
2, It is the only viable methods of regeneration genetically modified cells (or) cells after protoplast fusion.
3, Some plants with very small seeds including most orchid are most reliably grown from seed in sterile culture.
Disadvantages of plant micropropagation:
1. Expensive laboratory equipment and service .
2. No possibility of using mechanization .
3. Plant are not autotrophic .
4. When micropropagation is carried out through shoot tip culture genetic variability is very low .