Harvesting is the process of removal of entire plants or economic parts after maturity. The economic product may be grain ,seed leaf root or entire plant. The remaining portion of the stem that is left on the field after harvest known as stubble. On smaller farms with minimal mechanization ,harvesting is the most labour -intensive activity of the growing season. On large mechanization ,harvesting utilize the most expensive and sophisticated farm machinery ,such as the combine harvest. The term ‘harvesting ‘in general usage may include immediate postharvest handling ,including cleaning ,sorting ,packing ,and cooling.
Harvesting processes:1. Reaping-cutting the panicles and straw above ground.
2. Threshing-separating the paddy grain from the rest of cut crop .
3. Cleaning -removing immature ,unfilled ,non-grain materials.
4. Hauling – moving the cut crop to the threshing location.
Harvesting methods:Manual system is the most common mean of rice harvesting .The rice crop is cut by using simple hand tools like sickle [best for cutting 15-25cm above ground level] ,and simple hand-held knives[best for cutting below the panicle.
Manual harvesting:Manual system is the most common mean of rice harvesting .The rice crop is cut by using simple hand tools like sickle [best for cutting 15-25cm above ground level,and simple hand-held knives[best for cutting below the panicle.
Threshing harvesting:1.Threshing is the process of separating the grain from the straw. It can be either done by hand ,by using a treadle thresher or mechanized.
2. The common method for manual threshing is hand beating against an object ,,treading ,or by holding the crop against a rotating drum with spikes or rasp bars.
3 After being harvested paddy bunches may be stacked on the plot . This in field storage method results a pre-drying of the rice ears before threshing seeds purpose of which is to separate seeds from panicles.
Storage:Facilities ,hygiene ,and monitoring should all be adequate foe effective long term storage .
1.Damage caused by pests such insect ,rodents and molds can lead to deterioration of facilities and effect in losses in and food value as well as quality.
2.The way grain stored ,thus differ from way fruit and vegetable are stored.
Harvesting of vegetable:Harvest reducing the level of weight loss after harvesting vegetable maintaining vegetable quality for the final consumer.
1.Harvest treatment deal with vegetable protection and enhance vegetable quality.
2.The development of post with vegetable has permitted the creation of the current global vegetable.
Fruit and vegetable harvesting:1.Mechanical harvesting of only those fruit and vegetable product destined to processing can be considered generalized and economical in developed countries.
2,Manual harvesting of fruit and vegetable accounts for 30 to 60% of the production costs ,with a high net share in the final price of the product .
Harvesting tools :The hand sickle is used to harvest crops like wheat maize ,barely, pulses and grass etc.. Big sickle (Darat) is used to harvest fodder tree. (chopper)and axe are used to harvest crops like sugar- cane etc.
Important of harvesting :The goal of good harvesting is to maximize crop yield and minimize any crop losses and quality deterioration . Harvesting can be done manually using hangs or knife and it can be mechanically with use of rippers ,combine harvesters or other machines .
Disadvantage of harvesting:1.Lies in its size Due to this reason they are difficult to transport on a low loader to distant farm. They are important of using in small areas and unfit for any indoor use . They are best used in large.
2.Poor labourers to face the loss of jobs and starvation because single machine could do the work of scores of labourers and open field.